Glen Mazza's Weblog Monday May 27, 2024

Java (well, Kotlin) Client for Splash Events

To my blog-samples project I've added a Splash Events client using Spring Security's OAuth2 client support. Out of the box, it contains APIs for querying events, event extra details, event attendees, and contacts (attendees for one or more events), see its integrated tests for examples on how this client can be used. Although written in Kotlin, it should work fine integrated with any JVM-compatible language, I use it with a Java application.

One peculiarity with Splash Events is the API returning a 200 with a 429 internal error code when too many requests are being made, requiring some delay (usually a second will do) before making another request. I believe the limitation for at least my project is no more than two calls per second allowed, something that can easily occur when querying for many contacts or events. For optimal performance, for areas of the code where you're rapidly querying Splash, it's good to install an adjustable wait-state prior to making the call, to avoid the delays with receiving the 429 and making another call thereafter. Choose the smallest wait state that doesn't result in excessive 429 messages. Further, of course, code calling the client should still handle the case of a 429 getting returned, pausing, and making the same request again. For my calls to get contact data, I use code similar to the following:

private Contact getContact(String contactId) {
    do {
        try {
            insertDelay();   // Thread.sleep(xxx) etc.
            return splashQueryRunner.getContact(contactId).getData();
        } catch (ServiceException exception) {
            int statusCode = exception.getStatusCode();
            if (statusCode == 429) {
                pauseDueToTooManyRequests();  // Thread.sleep(xxx) with different logging
            } else {
                // something else
                logger.error("getContact API Call Service Exception: code = {}, message = {}",
                        statusCode, exception.getMessage());
                throw exception;
        } catch (Exception exception) {
            logger.error("Splash API getContact event call returned error", exception);
            throw exception;
    } while (true);

Posted by Glen Mazza in Programming at 07:00AM May 27, 2024 | Comments[0] Sunday March 17, 2024

Creating Chrome- and Firefox-compliant local development certificates

Below shows the steps I followed for creating keys and certificates for local development (at https://localhost:port#) of Tomcat- and Vite-powered web applications. The process involves creating a local certificate authority (CA) with a self-signed certificate imported into Firefox and Chrome. Then I created a server key and certificate, the latter signed by the CA, to be used by both application servers. This is for work on a Mac OS with LibreSSL 2.6.5 used for the key commands, the process will vary a bit with other OS's or OpenSSL variants.

Before proceeding, there are a couple of shortcuts for working with self-signed certificates for local development, if perhaps you have only a little bit of development to do and can stand the browser unpleasantries during that time. For Firefox, you can choose to ignore the "self-signed cert" warning, with the development pages continually marked as "not secure" as a consequence. Chrome also provides a couple of options (here and here) for the same. Finally, if your motivation in creating a new key is because you've lost the public key and/or cert for a given private key, see this note on how both can be regenerated from that private key.

  1. Create a Certificate Authority whose certificate will be imported into Firefox and Chrome. Although this certificate will be self-signed, the certificate for the server key that will be used by Tomcat and Vite will be signed by this CA. For these steps, I'm using genpkey to generate the private key and req to sign it, with a lifespan of 825 days as that's apparently the max permitted on MacOS. Note the RootCA requires a CA:TRUE setting which I'm providing below a rootcert.ext extension file.

    Place in ca/rootcert.ext:

    basicConstraints = critical,CA:TRUE

    (For the commands in this entry, using folders of ../certs and ../certs/ca)

    openssl genpkey -algorithm RSA -out ca/MyCA.key -pkeyopt rsa_keygen_bits:2048 -aes-256-cbc
    openssl req -new -sha256 -key ca/MyCA.key -out ca/MyCA.csr
    openssl x509 -req -sha256 -days 825 -in ca/MyCA.csr -signkey ca/MyCA.key -out ca/MyCA.crt -extfile ca/rootcert.ext


    • The -aes-256-cbc setting provides for key encryption, for which you'll be asked to provide a password.
    • "-sha256" is apparently the minimum accepted by Chrome, see here for further discussion.
    • If asked for a challenge password, that can apparently be left blank.
    • As for the configuration requested during the OpenSSL req command, I used "MyRootCA" as the Common Name for greater readability when viewing certificate chains. Note it needs to be different from the Common Name of any server certificate that it signs.
    • Contents of the private key, certificate signing request, and certificate can be viewed using commands such as these:
      openssl pkey -in MyCA.key -text -noout
      openssl req -text -in MyCA.csr -noout
      openssl x509 -text -in MyCA.crt -noout
  2. Import the CA certificate into Firefox and Chrome.

    For Firefox, menu item Firefox -> Preferences -> Privacy & Security -> View Certificates button -> Authorities -> Import MyCA.crt, then select "Trust this CA to identify websites." The CA will be listed on the Authorities tab under the Organization name you gave when creating the CSR.


    Chrome uses Apple's Keychain Access to store certificates. It can be activated from menu Chrome -> Preferences -> Privacy & Security -> Security Tab -> Manage Certificates. However, I found it clumsy to work with and simpler to use the command line:

    sudo security add-trusted-cert -k /Library/Keychains/System.keychain -d ca/MyCA.crt

    Once run, you'll find it under the system keychain, "Certificates" category in Keychain Access.

  3. Create the server key in which you specify the domain name(s) applications using the key will be using. First thing to note is that Chrome requires usage of the subjectAltName extension when creating the key, Common Name alone will not work. There are several ways to configure this extension, the simplest I found that would work with my version of LibreSSL was to use an extension file as explained in the OpenSSL cookbook. (Note "TightBlog" refers to my open source project.)

    Place in servercert.ext:

    subjectAltName = DNS:localhost

    Multiple domains can be specified, just make them comma-delimited.

    Then run these commands:

    openssl genpkey -algorithm RSA -out tightblog.key -pkeyopt rsa_keygen_bits:2048
    openssl req -new -sha256 -key tightblog.key -out tightblog.csr
    openssl x509 -req -in tightblog.csr -CA ca/MyCA.crt -CAkey ca/MyCA.key -CAcreateserial -out tightblog.crt -days 824 -sha256 -extfile servercert.ext
  4. Configure the keys and/or certs on the development servers. For TightBlog development, the application runs on Tomcat, however I use Vite while developing the Vue pages, so I have two servers to configure. SSL information for Tomcat is here and some for Vite is here.

    For Vue using Vite, I updated my vite.config.ts as follows:

    import fs from 'fs'
    export default defineConfig({
      server: {
        https: {
          key: fs.readFileSync('/Users/gmazza/opensource/certs/tightblog.key'),
          cert: fs.readFileSync('/Users/gmazza/opensource/certs/tightblog.crt')

    For Tomcat, I found Jens Grassel's instructions to be useful. He has us create a PKCS #12 key-and-certificate-chain bundle followed by usage of Java keytool to import the bundle into the keystore configured in the Tomcat server.xml file:

    openssl pkcs12 -export -in tightblog.crt -inkey tightblog.key -chain -CAfile ca/MyCA.crt -name "MyTomcatCert" -out tightblogForTomcat.p12
    keytool -importkeystore -deststorepass changeit -destkeystore /Users/gmazza/.keystore -srckeystore tightblogForTomcat.p12 -srcstoretype PKCS12

    Whatever export password you enter for the upper command, use as the source password in the lower one. The destkeystore should be whatever you have configured in your Tomcat server.xml for the SSL port. For Tomcat, you'll want no more than one alias (here, "MyTomcatCert") in the keystore, or specify the keyAlias in the Tomcat server.xml. The keytool list certs and delete alias commands can help you explore and adjust the Tomcat keystore.

  5. I activated the application in both browsers and checked the URL bar to confirm that the certificates were accepted. For my local development I have the application running on Tomcat at https://localhost:8443/ and the Vue pages running on Vite at https://localhost:8080. Examples showing the Vue URL on Firefox and the Tomcat one on Chrome are as below. Both URLs were accepted by both browsers, but note Firefox does caution that the CA the cert was signed with is not one of the standard CA certs that it ships with.

    Certificate accepted on Firefox

    Certificate accepted on Chrome

Posted by Glen Mazza in Programming at 07:00AM Mar 17, 2024 | Comments[1] Friday December 08, 2023

Deploying TightBlog on Linode

I've updated the software running this blog to a new version of TightBlog, running on a standalone Tomcat on Ubuntu running on Linode. It's still a SNAPSHOT version with some things to fix. Below are my installation notes. Note many of these instructions hold for deploying any WAR-file in such an environment, so what I've written below may be useful for other apps.

Linode preparation:

  1. Sign up for Linode. Best to first check for special starting credits, usually given at the top of their documentation. I used the $12/month plan providing 2 GB of RAM which has always worked fine for my needs.
  2. For the starting image for my new Linode, I used Ubuntu 22.04 LTS with its default partition of 50688 MB and 512 MB for swap space.
  3. I followed the remainder of the Getting Started Guide and most of the recommendations of the subsequent Securing Your Server guide.
  4. If you don't want the default Linode domain name of (as you probably don't) go to a domain name registrar such as Namecheap or Squarespace to rent your desired domain. I used the latter to obtain and then configured it for my linode following these instructions.
  5. As recommended in the Securing Your Server guide, I used key-based authentication allowing me to easily connect to my linode using "ssh (or sftp)" from a command-line on my home computer. (If you haven't gotten a custom domain name yet, you'll find the default name and IP address in the Public IPs section on the Remote Access tab in the Linode Manager.)
  6. I created a ~/tbfiles folder (owned by a non-root normal user account) as a staging area for files I'm uploading to my linode as well as to hold the TightBlog media file directories and (optionally) Lucene search indexes.

Tomcat preparation:

  1. I installed OpenJDK 17 and then manually Tomcat on my image, using a non-root account. Another option, which I had problems getting to work before switching to the above (probably due to since-learned firewall configuration omissions on my part), is using sudo apt-get install, which if you use requires some extra configuration for it to work with JDK 17.

    Either Tomcat install method above should result in sudo systemctl [start|stop|restart] tomcat (or ...tomcat9) command-line instructions being available for starting and stopping Tomcat. After starting Tomcat, confirm you can access Tomcat's port 8080 from a browser using your linode's IP address.

  2. Create a signed SSL certificate for use with Tomcat. I used Certbot which generates 3-month certificates, which can be configured in your Tomcat server.xml following these instructions. I've not yet configured automatic refresh, so my steps from Linode every three months:
    sudo systemctl stop tomcat
    For housekeeping on key updates, may wish to delete logs at /opt/tomcat/latest/logs 
    sudo -H certbot certonly --standalone -d -d
    (see "Successfully received certificate" feedback indicating Certbot worked.)
    sudo -s
    cd /etc/letsencrypt/live/*
    sudo cp {cert,chain,privkey}.pem /opt/tomcat/latest/conf
    chown tomcat:tomcat /opt/tomcat/latest/conf/*.pem
    sudo systemctl start tomcat
    ...confirm website accessible again at https://..., if not working ensure tomcat dirs all owned by tomcat user & restart
    cd /etc/letsencrypt/live
    sudo rm -r*
  3. Update the Tomcat conf/server.xml file to have HTTP running on port 80 and HTTPS on 443:
    <Connector port="80" protocol="HTTP/1.1"
                   redirectPort="443" />
    <Connector port="443" protocol="org.apache.coyote.http11.Http11NioProtocol"
                   maxThreads="150" SSLEnabled="true">
            <Certificate certificateFile="conf/cert.pem" certificateKeyFile="conf/privkey.pem" certificateChainFile="conf/chain.pem"/>
  4. If you're using a non-root user to run Tomcat as suggested, you'll need to make some changes to allow that user to use privileged ports (ports under 1024, port 80 and port 443 in Tomcat's case). One way this can be done is via authbind. For authbind, first edit the /etc/default/tomcat8 file to activate it and then run a script similar to the following (replace "tomcat8" with the non-root user that is running Tomcat on your linode):
    sudo touch /etc/authbind/byport/80
    sudo chmod 500 /etc/authbind/byport/80
    sudo chown tomcat8 /etc/authbind/byport/80
    sudo touch /etc/authbind/byport/443
    sudo chmod 500 /etc/authbind/byport/443
    sudo chown tomcat8 /etc/authbind/byport/443
  5. Because the Ubuntu Linode I was using was running the UFW firewall by default, I needed further commands to be able to expose 80 and 443 to external browsers:

    sudo ufw allow 80/tcp
    sudo ufw allow 443/tcp

    Use sudo ufw status to confirm the ports are available, for IPv4 you should see:

    Status: active
    To                         Action      From
    --                         ------      ----
    OpenSSH                    ALLOW       Anywhere                  
    3306                       ALLOW       Anywhere                  
    8080/tcp                   ALLOW       Anywhere                  
    80/tcp                     ALLOW       Anywhere                  
    443/tcp                    ALLOW       Anywhere       

MySQL preparation:

  1. Install MySQL on your linode.
  2. As explained in the TightBlog wiki, create the database that will hold the TightBlog data.
  3. (Optional) To connect to the MySQL database on your linode using SquirrelSQL or another SQL client running on your local computer, these instructions will help.

TightBlog deployment:

  1. I built the TightBlog war following these instructions and renamed it to ROOT.war so it will be Tomcat's default application (i.e., have a shorter URL, instead of The WAR file will need to be placed in the Tomcat webapps folder as usual.
  2. There are three files that need to be uploaded to the Tomcat /lib folder, as explained on the Deploy to Tomcat page on the wiki: slf4j-api-1.7.25.jar, your JDBC driver (mysql-connector-java-X.X.X-bin.jar for MySQL), and the file (sample). Create or download these as appropriate.
  3. The makes reference to folders used for storing media files and search index information, for example /home/gmazza/tbfiles/mediafiles. Note for Tomcat to be able to read and write from these folders, the leaf folder (here, mediafiles should have the ownership of the user account running Tomcat (e.g. tomcat:tomcat), and that user must have execute permissions for every parent folder.
  4. For uploading files from your computer to your linode, see the scp or sftp commands, for example: scp ROOT.war However, I prefer "sftp", navigating to desired folders, and using "put" or "get" to upload or download respectively.
  5. After uploading the files and placing them in their proper locations, restart Tomcat and start the TightBlog application install process at[/tightblog].

    Troubleshooting: if accessing[/tightblog] from a browser returns 404's while you can still ping the domain, check to see if you can access that URL from a terminal window that is SSH'ed into your Linode using the command-line Lynx browser. If you can, that would mean Tomcat is running properly but there is most likely a problem with the authbind or iptable rerouting preventing external access. If you can't, Tomcat configuration should be looked at first.

  6. Best to create a test blog entry, and create a database backup and restore process and confirm it is working with your database instance (e.g., add a blog entry after the backup, restore the backup and confirm the new entry disappears, or delete a blog entry after a backup and confirm the restore returns it.) Simple commands for MySQL would be as follows (see here for more details on available commands):
    Export to a file:
    sudo mysqldump tightblogdb > db_backup_YYYYMMDD.sql
    Import into the database to restore it:
    mysql -u root tightblogdb < db_backup_YYYYMMDD.sql

    Best to save the backup copy outside of the linode (e.g., on your local machine) and create a regular backup routine.

  7. Soon after the blog is up, good to check if the emailing is working by sending yourself a comment for a blog entry. If no email is received, check the tightblog.log in the Tomcat logs folder for any mail sending exceptions. If you're using GMail and there is an authorization problem, the error logs may provide you a precise link at where you can authorize TightBlog to use the email account.

Posted by Glen Mazza in Programming at 07:00AM Dec 08, 2023 | Comments[2] Monday November 06, 2023

Java Client for Adobe Marketo

I created a Spring OAuth2-based Marketo client, located in my blog-samples project on Github. Its format follows clients I had created previously for Salesforce CRM and Domo. While only a relatively small subset of the Marketo API is covered, the client covers some of its most important functionality, including:

  1. Lead maintenance, including querying, creating, updating, and deleting leads

  2. Activities - limited, just querying activity types supported

  3. Bulk Extracts - creating, enqueuing, polling, and downloading CSVs, both for leads and activities. Note there is a marketo.max.response.size.mb property used in the client's MarketoOAuth2Config class that can be increased beyond its default 2MB for larger downloads.

Should additional functionality be needed it should be reasonably straightforward to expand the client.

The functionality is well-tested by means of the integration tests provided in the project, which also serve as examples of how to work with the client. Note also the configuration instructions given in its properties file, needed for projects using this client.

Posted by Glen Mazza in Programming at 02:00AM Nov 06, 2023 | Tags:  marketo | Comments[0] Monday August 07, 2023

Java Client for Domo

Updated February 2024

At work we use Domo for analysis of customer behavior. We have a need to retrieve data stored in Domo DataSets, which are its rough equivalent to database tables. While Domo offers their own Java SDK, it hasn't been updated lately, and so I thought it better to create my own client, leveraging what I had done earlier for a Salesforce CRM client, with its Spring OAuth client support. Note the client currently supports just DataSets, specifically querying dataset metadata and contents (methods are in DataSetQueryRunner). Domo offers several other APIs which the client can probably be expanded to support without too much difficulty, leveraging what the DataSet calls do.

The Java client is available in the blog-samples GitHub project. Steps to use:

  1. Follow the Domo documentation to create a client ID and secret, and also to create an access token. In both cases, just the "data" scope is needed. The access token will not be used by the Java client, but will be used next to test permissions.

  2. Confirm the client credentials have the permissions necessary to access the desired DataSets. Use the access token to list the DataSets you have access to and then query one or more. The list call will give you the DataSet ID needed for the subsequent query. If you cannot see the desired DataSet in the list call, or if the query is not returning the DataSet's rows, your account's permissions may need to be adjusted before proceeding further.

  3. Confirm the Java client can work with those credentials. The RestServicesTest provides examples for querying DataSet metadata and contents. Update the desired queries with your desired DataSet ID and/or name as given in the comments. Also, follow the instructions in the resources/ file for adding your client credentials, making sure of course to not accidentally move them to public source control.

  4. Once all is configured, run the test class(es) from either from your IDE debugger or from the command-line (./gradlew clean build integrationTest) to ensure connectivity and functionality working.

  5. The integration test for the content query mostly queries the returned metadata as querying specific data would be dependent on the DataSet that you plugged in. By running the test in an IDE debugger you can see the actual data returned, but a sample format is already given as a comment in the client's DataSetQueryResponse. Note the returned data, given as the List<List<String>> rows in this class, shows that all data is returned as strings and must be queried via row and column to retrieve:

    // for each row of DataSet
    for (List<String> row : response.getRows()) {
        // query the row's columns, converting to different types as desired
        String col1 = row.get(0);
        int col2 = Integer.parseInt(row.get(1));

    Note the columns are ordered as they were in the query given in the DataSetQueryRequest.

  6. Notes

    1. Client credentials appear to be specific to the user creating them, and are hence limited to the DataSet access permissions that user has. Should the user lose access, another set of client credentials will need to be created.

    2. Domo does not appear to have any direct support for pagination. If you have a very large DataSet, adding a column with an incrementing number, and using the column in a WHERE clause, may be the best option.

    3. Another option for downloading large datasets, if your deployment has the memory available, there is also a domo.max.response.size.mb property used in the client's DomoOAuth2Config class that can be adjusted.

Posted by Glen Mazza in Programming at 03:00AM Aug 07, 2023 | Tags:  domo | Comments[0] Saturday May 20, 2023

Using Micrometer to send custom metrics to Datadog

This entry provides a simple example of using Spring Shell (within Spring Boot) and Micrometer to send custom metrics to Datadog. For a fuller example with Docker and the Datadog Agent, I recommend Datadog Learning Center's free Datadog 101: Developer course. This course will also provide you a free two-week training Datadog account which you can use to receive custom metrics for this example, useful if you don't care to test against your company account. Note custom metrics ordinarily carry billing costs, requiring a paid Datadog account.

Spring Boot already provides numerous web metrics in several areas that can be sent to Datadog without explicit need to capture them. The jvm.* properties, for example, are readable in Datadog's Metrics Explorer, filtering by statistic:value for this example in the "from" field. For custom metrics, we'll have the Spring Shell app commands modify a Timer and a Gauge.

  1. Create the Spring Shell application. From Spring Initializr, choose a Java JAR app with Spring Shell and Datadog as dependencies. For some reason I needed to choose the Spring Boot 2.7.x series for an app to download. Prior to running the demo in your IDE (I use IntelliJ), the management.metrics.export.datadog.apiKey=... value needs to be added to the main/resources/ file. Your API key can be determined by logging into Datadog, and from the bottom of the left-side menu, click on your name, then Organization Settings, then Access, the API Keys.

  2. Create the shell commands to add to the timer and gauge values:

    package com.example.demo;
    import io.micrometer.core.instrument.MeterRegistry;
    import io.micrometer.core.instrument.Tags;
    import io.micrometer.core.instrument.Timer;
    import java.util.ArrayList;
    import java.util.List;
    import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
    public class MyCommands {
        private final Timer timer;
        private final List<Integer> integerList;
        public MyCommands(MeterRegistry registry) {
            timer = registry.timer("demoapp.timer", Tags.empty());
            integerList = registry.gauge("demoapp.listsize", Tags.empty(), new ArrayList<>(), List::size);
        @ShellMethod("Note a timer event of given duration in seconds")
        public String timer(int seconds) {
            timer.record(seconds, TimeUnit.SECONDS);
            return "Timer event noted";
        @ShellMethod("Add an element to list")
        public String listAdd() {
            return "List has " + integerList.size() + " elements";
        @ShellMethod("Remove an element from list (if possible)")
        public String listRemove() {
            if (integerList.size() > 0) {
                integerList.remove(integerList.size() - 1);
            return "List has " + integerList.size() + " elements";

    For the above we're keeping a gauge on the size of the list, and for the timer, we provide the number of seconds that an arbitrary event took.

  3. Run the application and enter several timer #secs, list-add, and list-remove commands. Run -> Run Application from the IntelliJ menu should work fine to enter the commands in the IDE's Console view. To keep the connection with Datadog, keep the command-line app running, even if you're not entering commands. After 2 or 3 minutes, check Datadog's Metrics Explorer to confirm that the demoapp.timer and demoapp.listsize metrics are getting received:


    A dashboard can be created to show both properties at once (with separate average time and counts given for the Timer):



Posted by Glen Mazza in Programming at 03:00AM May 20, 2023 | Tags:  datadog | Comments[0] Sunday May 14, 2023

Using MySQL testcontainers with Spring Boot and Flyway

For a Spring Boot application accessing a Flyway-managed MySQL database, I updated its integration tests from using in-memory HSQLDB to Testcontainers' MySQL module. This was both to have testing be done on a database more closely matching deployment environments and also to have various tables pre-populated with standard data provided by our Flyway migration scripts. I'm happy to report that the cost of these benefits was only a slight increase in test running time (perhaps 10-15% more time), and that despite there being 170 Flyway migrations at that time of the conversion.

It is best to use Testcontainers when starting to develop the application, so any hiccups found in a Flyway migration file can be fixed before that migration file becomes final. Switching to testcontainers after-the-fact uncovered problems with some of our migration scripts requiring additional configuration of the MySQL testcontainer. The main problems were unnecessary explicit specification of the schema name in the scripts, and a suboptimal definition of a table that required explicit_defaults_for_timestamp to be configured in MySQL. This configuration was in our deployment my.cnf files but not in the default one used by the MySQL testcontainer.

Solving the first issue involved explicit specification of the username, password, and database name when creating the Testcontainers instance. Initializing the MySQL container just once for all integration tests is sufficient for our particular application, so TC's Manual container lifecycle control which uses Java configuration was used:

public class MyAppIntegrationTest {

    private static final MySQLContainer MY_SQL_CONTAINER;

    static {
        MY_SQL_CONTAINER = new MySQLContainer("mysql:5.7")

    public static void containersProperties(DynamicPropertyRegistry registry) {
        registry.add("spring.datasource.username", MY_SQL_CONTAINER::getUsername);
        registry.add("spring.datasource.password", MY_SQL_CONTAINER::getPassword);
        registry.add("spring.datasource.url", MY_SQL_CONTAINER::getJdbcUrl);

The containersProperties call dynamically populates the given Spring boot config values with those provided from the MySQL testcontainer. Note the spring.datasource.url will be a "regular" MySQL URL, i.e., Spring Boot and Flyway are unaware that the database is a Testcontainers-provided one.

When doing Java-based instantiation of the MySQL instance as above, I've found adding the standard property file configuration of the MySQL testcontainer to be unnecessary and best avoided -- doing so appeared to create a second, unused, container instance, slowing down builds. However, if you choose to use properties-only Java configuration (perhaps wishing to instantiate and initialize MySQL testcontainers more frequently during the integration tests), configuration similar to the below should work. Note the "myappdatabase", "myuser" and "mypass" values given in the url property are used to tell Testcontainers the values to set when creating the database and the user. In turn, whatever values placed here should go into the standard Spring username and password properties as shown:


Fixing the second issue involved using a different my.cnf for the MySQL testcontainer. To accomplish that I copied the mysql-default-conf/my.cnf directory and file from the org.testcontainers.mysql:1.17.6 library (easily viewable from IntelliJ IDEA) and pasted it as src/itest/resources/mysql-default-conf/my.cnf in the Spring Boot application. From the latter location I added my needed change.


  • The Gradle dependencies used to activate the MySQL testcontainer in the integration test environment:

    configurations {
        integrationTestImplementation.extendsFrom testImplementation
        integrationTestRuntimeOnly.extendsFrom testRuntimeOnly
    dependencies {
        integrationTestImplementation 'org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-test'
        integrationTestImplementation 'org.testcontainers:mysql'
        integrationTestImplementation 'org.testcontainers:junit-jupiter'
  • As the migrations are kept in the main/resources folder, in the standard db/migration subdirectory, I thought I could perhaps just create overriding migrations in the corresponding itest/resources subdirectory for the few migrations with problems, and that Flyway would use the overrides over the ones in the main/resources folder. That did not work, though, Flyway halts with a complaint about duplicate filenames between the two folder locations.

Further resources:

Posted by Glen Mazza in Programming at 03:00AM May 14, 2023 | Comments[0] Friday May 05, 2023

Adding a custom grant type to Spring Authorization Server

Basit-Mahmood Ahmed has provided a nice example of adding a custom grant to Spring Authorization Server, providing a replacement for the "resource owner" grant removed from the OAuth 2.1 standard. I was able to leverage that for providing our own resource owner implementation. At work we've needed to create several types of custom grants, thankfully what started off as perplexing to implement, due to repetition became rather routine. Best starting advice I can to examine the out-of-the-box provided grant types and follow along with them. The Reference Guide of course and YouTube videos are also valuable, for example Getting Started with Spring Authorization Server and Configuring and Extending Spring Authorization Server.

For each custom grant type to support under Spring Auth Server, I've normally found five extra source files needed, as well as adjusting a couple of others. Most classes are limited in responsibilities helping keep their creation straightforward. Providing links to Basit-Mahmood's example where applicable, as well as some unrelated additional code samples:

  1. The custom grant Token class (example): Extending OAuth2AuthorizationGrantAuthenticationToken, this class holds the properties used by the Provider (discussed below) to authenticate the client. For the resource owner grant, it would have username and password. For a grant based on incoming IP Address, it would be an IP address string. This class is also a good place to define the custom token grant_type parameter used in the OAuth2 token request.

  2. The custom grant Converter class (example): This class takes the incoming HttpServletRequest and, by reading its properties, creates an instance of the Token class. Parameter validation for obvious shortcomings (missing param values, etc.) are good to do here, to help keep the Provider uncluttered.

  3. The Provider class (example): This class takes the Token created by the Converter and authenticates and authorizes the grant. In general, there are two parts to this: authentication of the token, frequently handled by two other classes, discussed below, followed by construction of the JWT, partly in the Provider and partly in the OAuth2TokenCustomizer discussed below.

  4. A token to represent the resource owner. This class will extend from AbstractAuthenticationToken, and will be used both to authenticate a user and to represent the user after authentication.

    package ...;
    public class MyInnerAuthenticationToken extends AbstractAuthenticationToken {
        private final MyAccessUser myAccessUser;
        // constructor for user-to-validate	
        public MyInnerAuthenticationToken(String propertyToCheck) {
            this.myAccessUser = new MyAccessUser(propertyToCheck);
        // constructor for validated user
        public MyInnerAuthenticationToken(MyAccessUser myAccessUser,
                                           Collection authorities) {
            this.myAccessUser = myAccessUser;
            super.setAuthenticated(true); // must use super, as we override
        public Object getPrincipal() {
            return this.myAccessUser;
        public void setAuthenticated(boolean isAuthenticated) throws IllegalArgumentException {
                    "Cannot set this token to trusted - use constructor which takes a GrantedAuthority list instead");
        public String getName() {
            return this.myAccessUser.getName();
  5. Another Provider to authenticate the above token. This would be called by the OAuth2 grant Provider during authentication. This Provider implements the standard authenticate(Authentication) method, returning a new Token populated with the principal and its authorities.

    public class MyInnerAuthenticationProvider implements AuthenticationProvider {
        private static final Logger LOGGER = LoggerFactory.getLogger(MyInnerAuthenticationProvider.class);
        private MyAuthenticator authenticator;
        public Authentication authenticate(Authentication authentication) throws AuthenticationException {
            MyAccessUser unvalidatedUser = (MyAccessUser) authentication.getPrincipal();
            String ip = unvalidatedUser.getIpAddress();
            MyAccessUser validatedAccessUser = authenticator.checkIpAddress(ip);
            if (validatedIPAccessUser != null) {
                Collection<GrantedAuthority> authorities = authenticator.toGrantedAuthorities(
                return new MyInnerAuthenticationToken(validatedAccessUser, authorities);
            } else {
                LOGGER.warn("Could not validate user {}", unvalidatedUser);
                return null;
        public boolean supports(Class<?> authentication) {
            return MyInnerAuthenticationToken.class.isAssignableFrom(authentication);
  6. Spring Authorization Server allows for creating an OAuth2TokenCustomizer implementation for adding claims to a JWT common to multiple grant types. It should get picked up automatically by the framework's JwtGenerator. If you've created one, good to review at this stage any adjustments or additions that can be made to it as a result of the new custom grant.

    public class MyTokenCustomizer implements OAuth2TokenCustomizer {
        public void customize(JwtEncodingContext context) {
            JwtClaimsSet.Builder claimsBuilder = context.getClaims();
            claimsBuilder.claim(ENVIRONMENT_ID, environment);
            // Spring Auth Server's JwtGenerator does not provide JTI by default
            claimsBuilder.claim(JwtClaimNames.JTI, UUID.randomUUID().toString());
            Authentication token = context.getPrincipal();
            // can add principal-specific claims:
            if (token.getPrincipal() instanceof MySubjectClass chiefJwtSubject) {

Once completed, now time to wire new grant support within the authorization server. To wire up the grant-level Converter and Provider, within a WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter subclass:

List converters = new ArrayList<>();

        .tokenEndpoint(tokenEndpoint -> {
            tokenEndpoint.accessTokenRequestConverter(new DelegatingAuthenticationConverter(
                // lots more providers

The mini-level Provider, used for the actual authentication of the User, can be configured separately as a @Bean:

public MyInnerAuthenticationProvider myInnerAuthenticationProvider() {
    return new MyInnerAuthenticationProvider();

Once developed, easy to test with Postman. Spring Auth Server uses an oauth2_registered_client table where the client_id and client_secret for clients are defined. Within Postman, Authorization tab, choose Basic Auth type and enter the client ID and secret as the credentials:


Then the new grant type can be tested with a POST call to the standard oauth/token endpoint using that grant_type:


Posted by Glen Mazza in Programming at 03:00AM May 05, 2023 | Comments[0]

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