Glen Mazza's Weblog

https://glenmazza.net/blog/date/20210404 Sunday April 04, 2021

Accessing Salesforce using Spring Security 5's OAuth2 client

For the two Salesforce OAuth2 flows discussed in my earlier blog post, namely the JWT bearer token and username/password flows, I've created a sample Spring Boot app on Github. This app will obtain access tokens using the flow you configure and make a sample call to Salesforce's standard "Account" resource. Note both these server-to-server flows assume a hardcoded single resource owner for all API calls. (For clients handling multiple users logging in and authorizing calls, Salesforce's Web Server Flow is more appropriate, there are some links at the bottom for information on this flow.)

To run the sample, first create an application.properties file in the resources folder with the configuration necessary for the flow you are using (there is a template file in that folder specifying what is needed for each flow type, with the earlier blog post providing instructions on how to obtain these values). The sample's SalesforceOAuth2Config class reads that configuration, and will halt on startup with informational messages if anything needed is missing. The app can be run from an IDE like IntelliJ or command-line via gradle bootRun, and it will make a sample call retrieving one Salesforce Account object every 30 seconds until halted.

To create the app, I used Spring's Initialzr with the latest Spring Boot release version and Java 11, and added the Spring Web, Spring Reactive Web, and OAuth2 Client dependencies. During development I also brought in a few extra libraries listed in the build.gradle. The Username/Password flow is supported out of the box by Spring, but the JWT bearer token flow requires some extra classes that I implemented following Spring's source code for their standard password and client grant flows. The files are commented to aid in understanding this flow:

What happens when access tokens expire? The WebClient call in SalesforceService has a retry(1) setting that allows one additional call to the resource server in case of an error such as using an expired access token. In such cases, for the first call, the failure handler in SalesforceOAuth2Config removes the authorized client instance (which has the invalid access token) from memory. For the retry call, SalesforceJwtBearerOAuth2AuthorizedClientProvider notes that there is not an authorized client instance anymore so proceeds to obtain a new access token to allow the second call to proceed. This functionality can be verified by revoking the access token from either Salesforce Setup's Session Management screen or from Connected Apps usage, and making a subsequent resource API call, it should seamlessly provide the data. Code breakpoints can also be used to confirm another access token was requested.

Additional Resources

Posted by Glen Mazza in Programming at 07:00AM Apr 04, 2021 | Tags:  oauth2  salesforce  spring | Comments[0]

https://glenmazza.net/blog/date/20210328 Sunday March 28, 2021

Making Salesforce API calls with Postman

Salesforce's Mohith Shrivastava's second Connected App tutorial shows how the JWT Bearer Token Flow can be used with Postman to obtain access tokens. Separately, SFDCStop shows how to use an access token to retrieve data from Salesforce. Summary of the process for getting an access token via JWT Bearer Token flow is given below, along with the alternative Username-Password flow.

Obtaining Access Token via JWT Bearer Token Flow

Mohith's second tutorial largely follows the Trailblazer documentation for creating the JWT necessary for obtaining an access token. First, within Postman, open a POST request to https://test.salesforce.com/services/oauth2/token (or login.salesforce.com for production) with two query attributes, grant_type hardcoded to urn:ietf:params:oauth:grant-type:jwt-bearer and assertion with a value that can be generated at JWT.io as follows:

  1. Place {"alg":"RS256"} in the JWT header.

  2. Place the following in the JWT payload, updating the iss value with the Client ID of the connected app, the aud value with the login or test URL being accessed, the sub with the Salesforce resource owner (the user ID, usually expressed as an email), and exp value being the ten-digit current UNIX timestamp. Ensure there are no spaces or carriage returns in the payload:

    {"iss":"--client id--","sub":"--salesforce user--","aud":"https://test.salesforce.com","exp":"1616865336"}

    You may also wish to add a "jti" field (JWT ID), the value of which can be a randomly generated UUID. As stated in the Trailblazer documentation linked above, if a "jti" field is added, Salesforce will make sure the JWT hasn't been used to make a prior access token request, serving as a guard against replay attacks. If it has been used, it will return a 400 response code with message { "error": "invalid_request", "error_description": "jti already in use"}.

  3. Finally, in the Verify Signature portion, as generated in the previous tutorial, place the PublicCert.crt contents and the private key found in key.pem (including the BEGIN/END delimiters) in the corresponding boxes. JWT.io should report "Signature Verified", upon which you can copy the left-side as the assertion value into the Postman call. Make the call and you should get an access token in response.

    BearerTokenRequest

Obtaining Access Token via Username-Password Flow

This process is much more straightforward as no keys are used. As shown in the Salesforce documentation, you can simply make a POST request with the following five query parameters: grant_type, client_id, client_secret, username, and password.

PostmanViaUsernamePwd

Making Salesforce calls using the Access Token

As demo'ed in the SFDCStop video, can create a GET request to say https://yoursalesforceinstance.salesforce.com/services/data/v50.0/query?q=SELECT+Name,Type+FROM+Account. Under the Authorization tab, select "Bearer", copy-and-paste the access token in, and make the API call.

SOQLQuery

More information on SOQL calls are available here.

Posted by Glen Mazza in Programming at 07:00AM Mar 28, 2021 | Tags:  oauth2  salesforce  postman | Comments[0]

https://glenmazza.net/blog/date/20210321 Sunday March 21, 2021

Creating a Salesforce Connected App

Salesforce Connected Apps provide the conduit for data transfers between Salesforce and third-party apps. Salesforce's Mohith Shrivastava offers four-part series on Connected Apps, roughly four hours of instruction in total, helpful for visual walk-through of configuration. Below are simple steps I've followed for configuring a Connected App, but as always the official documentation should be at least reviewed to make sure all security matters are properly taken care of.

Creating credentials to access a Connected App.

The OAuth Authorization Flows section in the Salesforce Trailblazer documentation details the various methods (or "flows") available for working with Salesforce data externally. Below lists configuration for two of the flows usually best for server-to-server integration, i.e., without an active user logging in and activating the processes. For this use case, Salesforce recommends creating an integration user. Instructions here and here seem to best for creating an integration user. However, the profile options for choosing "API Enabled" and "API Only User" (i.e., user can not directly log into Salesforce) appear not to be under a "Administrative permissions" section anymore but under the System: System Permissions option when one creates the integration user's profile.

  • OAuth 2.0 JWT Bearer Flow: Accessing the application using a public/private key pair. Here, the public cert is uploaded to the Salesforce connected app, while the requests are signed by the client using the private key. The Connected App relies on the successful decrypting of the message to confirm the request is coming from the client. In this case, the user's login and connected app consumer key are needed by the client, but not the user's password or the connected app client secret.

    A locally-made key pair is sufficient for this access technique, I've used a combination of the Java keytool and OpenSSL for this. Steps:

    1. Create a Java PKCS12 keystore using the following command. Keystore passwords here don't matter as they will soon be discarded (keys will be worked with directly). Note that validity given below is in days, whatever value you choose, note the key will need to be replaced with it expires:

      keytool -genkeypair -keyalg RSA -sigalg SHA1withRSA -validity 1095 -storepass mypassword -storetype PKCS12 -keystore tempKeystore.p12 -alias myappkey
    2. Create a public certificate to be uploaded to the Salesforce Connected App:

      keytool -export -rfc -keystore tempKeystore.p12 -storepass mypassword -file PublicCert.crt -alias myappkey
    3. As for the public key itself, it is not needed for making Salesforce calls, but can be obtained if desired via:

      openssl x509 -pubkey -in PublicCert.crt -text -noout
    4. Finally, extracting the private key from the keystore. Two formats are provided below, pem and (encoded) DER. The latter is usually used for Java, and obtained from the former via the commands below. The private key needs to be kept secure as anyone with it can access the Salesforce Connected App, once the latter is configured with its public key.

      openssl pkcs12 -in tempKeystore.p12 -passin pass:mypassword -nodes -nocerts -out key.pem
      openssl pkcs8 -topk8 -inform PEM -outform DER -out key.der -nocrypt -in key.pem
      openssl base64 -in key.der -out keyDerEncoded.txt
      
  • OAuth 2.0 Username-Password Flow for Special Scenarios: Obtaining access tokens using the resource owner's username and password instead of X.509 key pair. Salesforce does not ordinarily recommend this flow, quote: "Use it only if there’s a high degree of trust between the resource owner and the client, the client is a first-party app, Salesforce is hosting the data, and other grant types aren’t available. In these cases, set user permissions to minimize access and protect stored credentials from unauthorized access."

    If you're heavily using Postman to obtain access tokens, this method is much easier and faster than manually creating JWT bearer tokens, of course be careful though that the user and client credentials don't get exposed to others who shouldn't have them.

Salesforce Connected App Configuration
  1. Log into Salesforce and click the gear on the upper right side to choose Setup (illustration below). Once the setup window appears, on the left-side search box search and select "App Manager". Once App Manager is up, select the New Connected App button on the right-side.

    SCA_SetupButton

    SCA_NewConnApp

  2. Click on the "Enable OAuth Settings" checkbox to place in configuration similar to the below. See the official documentation for an explanation of options available, also note the refresh_token role granted below would be unneeded for either of the two flows above (neither use refresh tokens). If using the Bearer Flow, be sure to click on "Use Digital Signatures", place the public key generated earlier into a file and upload. The callback URL will be ignored for either of the two flows, but a value needs to be provided regardless. When done, hit “Save” at the top, and then the “Manage” button, and then “Edit Policies” (covered in next step).

    SCA_OAuthSettings
  3. On the Policies page, here is where you may wish to add IP Address restrictions to limit from where approved clients may call the application. Click Save and scroll to the Profiles section (next step).

    SCA_OAuthPolicies

  4. For profiles, add the profile of the User being used to make the Salesforce calls. If an Integration User profile was created as suggested above, for example, choose that. Make sure the user associated with the calls is part of that profile.

  5. Back in App Manager, in the table of apps, go to the last column of the new connected app and choose View. As mentioned earlier, just the consumer key will be needed for the Bearer flow, but both that and the consumer secret for the Username-Password flow. As with the private key in the Bearer flow, make sure the client secret is stored confidentially, should it get exposed the connected app should be deleted and a new one which will have a different consumer key and secret created.

Posted by Glen Mazza in Programming at 07:00AM Mar 21, 2021 | Tags:  salesforce  oauth2 | Comments[0]

https://glenmazza.net/blog/date/20191228 Saturday December 28, 2019

TightBlog 3.7 released, offers improved comment handling

TightBlog 3.7 released just now: (Release Page). This version requires a few database table changes over 3.6, if upgrading be sure to review the database instructions given on the release page. Features updated comment and spam handling processes, as described on the TightBlog Wiki.

Posted by Glen Mazza in Programming at 12:00AM Dec 28, 2019 | Comments[0]

https://glenmazza.net/blog/date/20191211 Wednesday December 11, 2019

TightBlog 3.6 Released!

Just-released TightBlog 3.6 (release page/screenshots/installation instructions) now provides an endpoint for embedding GitHub source code in your blog entries, see here for a sample and the Tightblog Wiki for more details. Previously I had to rely on third party tools hosted on other servers to accomplish the same, but happy to report this functionality is now available out-of-the-box with TightBlog.

Posted by Glen Mazza in Programming at 07:00AM Dec 11, 2019 | Comments[0]

https://glenmazza.net/blog/date/20191106 Wednesday November 06, 2019

Improving validation feedback in TightBlog

Tom Homberg provided a nice guide for implementing user-feedback validation within Spring applications, quite helpful for me in improving what I had in TightBlog. He creates a field - message Violation object (e.g., {"Name" "Name is required"}), a list of which is wrapped by a ValidationErrorResponse, the latter of which gets serialized to JSON and sent to the client to display validation errors. For my own implementation, I left the field value blank to display errors not specific to a particular field, and used it for both sending 400-type for user-input problems and generic 500-type messages for system errors.

Implementing this validation for TightBlog's blogger UI, I soon found it helpful to have convenience methods for quick creation of the Violations, ValidationErrorResponses and Spring ResponseEntities for providing feedback to the client:

public static ResponseEntity<ValidationErrorResponse> badRequest(String errorMessage) {
    return badRequest(new Violation(errorMessage));
}

public static ResponseEntity<ValidationErrorResponse> badRequest(Violation error) {
    return badRequest(Collections.singletonList(error));
}

public static ResponseEntity<ValidationErrorResponse> badRequest(List errors) {
    return ResponseEntity.badRequest().body(new ValidationErrorResponse(errors));
}

i18n can be handled via the Locale method argument, one of the parameters automatically provided by Spring:

@Autowired
private MessageSource messages;

@PostMapping(...)
public ResponseEntity doFoo(Locale locale) {
    ...

    if (error) {
        return ValidationErrorResponse.badRequest(messages.getMessage("mediaFile.error.duplicateName", null, locale));
    }
}

On the front-end, I have Angular.js trap the code and then output the error messages (am not presently not using the field names). Below truncated for brevity (full source: JavaScript and JSP):

this.commonErrorResponse = function(response) {   
    self.errorObj = response.data;
}

<div id="errorMessageDiv" class="alert alert-danger" role="alert" ng-show="ctrl.errorObj.errors" ng-cloak>
    <button type="button" class="close" data-ng-click="ctrl.errorObj.errors = null" aria-label="Close">
       <span aria-hidden="true">×</span>
    </button>
    <ul class="list-unstyled">
       <li ng-repeat="item in ctrl.errorObj.errors">{{item.message}}</li>
    </ul>
</div>

Appearance:

400validation

Additionally, I was able to remove a fair amount of per-endpoint boilerplate by creating a single ExceptionHandler for unexpected 500 response code system errors and attaching it to my ControllerAdvice class so it would be used by all REST endpoints. For these types of exceptions usually a generic "System error occurred, please contact Administrator" message is sent to the user. However, I added a UUID that both appears on the client and goes into the logs along with the exception details, making it easy to search the logs for the specific problem. The exception handler (from the TightBlog source):

@ExceptionHandler(value = Exception.class)
// avoiding use of ResponseStatus as it activates Tomcat HTML page (see ResponseStatus JavaDoc)
public ResponseEntity<ValidationErrorResponse> handleException(Exception ex, Locale locale) {
    UUID errorUUID = UUID.randomUUID();
    log.error("Internal Server Error (ID: {}) processing REST call", errorUUID, ex);

    ValidationErrorResponse error = new ValidationErrorResponse();
    error.getErrors().add(new Violation(messages.getMessage(
            "generic.error.check.logs", new Object[] {errorUUID}, locale)));

    return ResponseEntity.status(500).body(error);
}

Screen output:

500errordisplay

Log messaging containing the same UUID:

LogStackTrace

Additional Resources

Posted by Glen Mazza in Programming at 07:00AM Nov 06, 2019 | Comments[0]

https://glenmazza.net/blog/date/20190930 Monday September 30, 2019

TightBlog 3.5.3 Released

Downloads here, deployment instructions here.

Posted by Glen Mazza in Programming at 04:33PM Sep 30, 2019 | Tags:  tightblog | Comments[0]

https://glenmazza.net/blog/date/20190616 Sunday June 16, 2019

TightBlog 3.5 Released!

And this blog is running it! Information here, including migration-from-3.4 notes. Alas, a couple of bugs found when running this version, I hope to get a 3.5.1 out next weekend to fix them. Update: 3.5.1 released!

Posted by Glen Mazza in Programming at 07:57PM Jun 16, 2019 | Comments[0]


Calendar
« April 2021
Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Today
About Me
Java Software Engineer
TightBlog project maintainer
Arlington, Virginia USA
glen.mazza at pm dot me
GitHub profile for Glen Mazza at Stack Overflow, Q&A for professional and enthusiast programmers
Blog Search


Blog article index
Navigation
About Blog
Blog software: TightBlog 3.7.2
Application Server: Tomcat
Database: MySQL
Hosted on: Linode
SSL Certificate: Let's Encrypt
Installation Instructions