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https://glenmazza.net/blog/date/20180506 Sunday May 06, 2018

Using SAAJ to call RPC/encoded SOAP web services

The National Weather Service's legacy National Digital Forecast Service (WSDL) uses the older rpc/encoded SOAP binding style not ordinarily supported by JAX-WS implementations (the NWS has since switched to a REST-based API). The WS-I Basic Profile limits binding styles to either Document/literal or RPC/literal, and JAX-WS was designed to honor this limitation. The reason for excluding RPC/encoded was apparently due to compatibility issues involved with encoding, as well as possibly message size and performance issues.

Russell Butek has written an informative article explaining the different SOAP binding styles, their appearance over the wire, and the advantages and disadvantages of each. To show the binding differences between the RPC/encoded and standard Doc/Literal bindings, I've copied an NWS and an Amazon Commerce Service (WSDL) operation below:

<binding name="ndfdXMLBinding" type="tns:ndfdXMLPortType">
   <soap:binding style="rpc" transport="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/http"/>
   <operation name="NDFDgen">
      <soap:operation 
         soapAction="http://www.weather.gov/forecasts/xml/DWMLgen/wsdl/ndfdXML.wsdl#NDFDgen" 
         style="rpc"/>
      <input>
         <soap:body use="encoded" 
            namespace="http://www.weather.gov/forecasts/xml/DWMLgen/wsdl/ndfdXML.wsdl" 
            encodingStyle="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/encoding/"/>
      </input>
      <output>
         <soap:body use="encoded" 
            namespace="http://www.weather.gov/forecasts/xml/DWMLgen/wsdl/ndfdXML.wsdl"
            encodingStyle="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/encoding/"/>
      </output>
   </operation>
   ...
</binding>

<binding name="AWSECommerceServiceBinding" type="tns:AWSECommerceServicePortType">
   <soap:binding style="document" transport="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/http"/>
   <operation name="ItemSearch">
      <soap:operation soapAction="http://soap.amazon.com"/>
      <input>
         <soap:body use="literal"/>
      </input>
      <output>
         <soap:body use="literal"/>
      </output>
   </operation>
   ...
</binding>

In addition to requiring Doc/Lit or RPC/Lit bindings, the WS-I Basic Profile also prohibits the use of the encodingStyle attribute (R1005-R1007) and namespace attributes (R2716-17; R2726), restrictions you can see honored above with the Amazon ItemSearch operation.

Web service implementations that natively support JAX-RPC service calls include Oracle's JAX-RPC implementation as well as Axis 1.x, both long deprecated. Attempting to run Apache CXF's wsdl2java with the NWS' RPC/encoded WSDL returns an "Rpc/encoded wsdls are not supported in JAXWS 2.0" error message. However the SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) can be used with the JAX-WS Dispatch interface to create "raw" web service calls to a web service provider that uses RPC/encoded bindings. The following SOAP client provides two such examples of using SAAJ. A simple way to run this example would be to download my intro Web Service tutorial source code, replace its client subproject's WSClient class with the WSClient below and run mvn clean install exec:exec from the client folder.

package client;

import java.io.StringReader;
import java.net.URL;

import javax.xml.namespace.QName;
import javax.xml.soap.MessageFactory;
import javax.xml.soap.Name;
import javax.xml.soap.SOAPBody;
import javax.xml.soap.SOAPBodyElement;
import javax.xml.soap.SOAPElement;
import javax.xml.soap.SOAPFactory;
import javax.xml.soap.SOAPFault;
import javax.xml.soap.SOAPHeader;
import javax.xml.soap.SOAPMessage;
import javax.xml.soap.SOAPPart;
import javax.xml.transform.Source;
import javax.xml.transform.stream.StreamSource;
import javax.xml.ws.Dispatch;
import javax.xml.ws.Service;
import javax.xml.ws.soap.SOAPFaultException;

public class WSClient {

    public static void main (String[] args) {
        WSClient wsc = new WSClient();

        // get forecast by Zip Code
        wsc.getWeatherForecast("19110"); // Philadelphia

        // get another forecast
        wsc.getWeatherForecast("33157"); // Miami
    }

    private void getWeatherForecast(String zipCode) {

        try {
            // Convert the ZIP code to a geocoded value (which is needed
            // as input for the weather data)

            String nsSchema = "http://graphical.weather.gov/xml/DWMLgen/schema/DWML.xsd";

            String soapSchema = "http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/";

            String xsiSchema
                    = "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance";

            String encodingStyle
                    = "http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/encoding/";

            String zipRequest = " "
                    + ""
                    +"   "
                    +           ""
                    +               zipCode
                    +           ""
                    +    ""
                    +""
                    +"";

            String wsdl = "https://graphical.weather.gov/xml/SOAP_server/ndfdXMLserver.php?wsdl";
            String targetNS = "https://graphical.weather.gov/xml/DWMLgen/wsdl/ndfdXML.wsdl";

            URL url = new URL(wsdl);
            QName serviceName = new QName(targetNS, "ndfdXML");
            QName portName = new QName(targetNS, "ndfdXMLPort");
            Service service = Service.create(url, serviceName);

            /*
             * JAX-WS Dispatch provides three usage options: -- JAXBContext
             * (unsure if works though for rpc/enc WSDL) -- JAXP Source objects
             * (used here) -- SAAJ SOAPMessages (used in 2nd request below)
             */
            Dispatch dispatch = service.createDispatch(portName,
                    Source.class, Service.Mode.MESSAGE);
            Source zipResponse = dispatch.invoke(
                    new StreamSource(new StringReader(zipRequest)));
            // if using a file for input instead:
            // new StreamSource(new File("myrequest.xml")));

            // use SAAJ to open message -- check if error or valid data
            MessageFactory msgFactory = MessageFactory.newInstance();
            SOAPMessage geocodeMsg = msgFactory.createMessage();
            SOAPPart env = geocodeMsg.getSOAPPart();
            env.setContent(zipResponse);
            // writeTo method outputs SOAPMessage, helpful for debugging
            // geocodeMsg.writeTo(System.out);

            if (geocodeMsg.getSOAPBody().hasFault()) {
                // Copy official error response into our LNF Fault
                SOAPFault fault = geocodeMsg.getSOAPBody().getFault();
                System.out.println("Could not obtain forecast for zipcode "
                        + zipCode + ": "
                        + fault.getFaultString() + "; " + fault.getDetail().getValue());
            }

            // From here: valid geocode is present-- so get weather report next

            /*
             * LatLonListZipCodeResponse is not very helpful; needed information
             * (latLonList) element is html-escaped instead of a real tag, which
             * is suitable for HTML responses but not so helpful when you need
             * to extract the value. So will need to parse string response to
             * get geocode values  
             *      35.1056,-90.007
             *   
             *  
             * 
             */
            String geocodeBuffer = geocodeMsg.getSOAPBody().
                    getElementsByTagName("listLatLonOut")
                    .item(0).getFirstChild().getNodeValue();

            // .getNodeValue() unescapes HTML string
            String geocodeVals = geocodeBuffer.substring(
                    geocodeBuffer.indexOf("") + 12,
                    geocodeBuffer.indexOf(""));
            System.out.println("Geocode Vals for zip code " + zipCode
                    + " are: " + geocodeVals);

            /*
             * NDFDgenLatLonList operation: gets weather data for a given
             * latitude, longitude pair
             *
             * Format of the Message:     38.99,-77.02 
             *  glance
             *    
             */
            SOAPFactory soapFactory = SOAPFactory.newInstance();
            SOAPMessage getWeatherMsg = msgFactory.createMessage();
            SOAPHeader header = getWeatherMsg.getSOAPHeader();
            header.detachNode();  // no header needed
            SOAPBody body = getWeatherMsg.getSOAPBody();
            Name functionCall = soapFactory.createName(
                    "NDFDgenLatLonList", "schNS",
                    nsSchema);
            SOAPBodyElement fcElement = body.addBodyElement(functionCall);
            Name attname = soapFactory.createName("encodingStyle", "S",
                    soapSchema);
            fcElement.addAttribute(attname, soapSchema);
            SOAPElement geocodeElement = fcElement.addChildElement("listLatLon");
            geocodeElement.addTextNode(geocodeVals);
            SOAPElement product = fcElement.addChildElement("product");
            product.addTextNode("glance");

            // make web service call using this SOAPMessage
            Dispatch smDispatch = service.createDispatch(portName,
                    SOAPMessage.class, Service.Mode.MESSAGE);
            SOAPMessage weatherMsg = smDispatch.invoke(getWeatherMsg);
            // weatherMsg.writeTo(System.out); // debugging only

            // Metro needs normalize() command because it breaks
            // up child dwml element into numerous text nodes.
            weatherMsg.getSOAPBody().getElementsByTagName("dwmlOut")
                    .item(0).normalize();

            // First child of dwmlOut is the dwml element that we need.
            // It is the root node of the weather data that we will
            // be using to generate the report.
            String weatherResponse = weatherMsg.getSOAPBody().
                    getElementsByTagName("dwmlOut")
                    .item(0).getFirstChild().getNodeValue();
            System.out.println("WR: " + weatherResponse);
        } catch (SOAPFaultException e) {
            System.out.println("SOAPFaultException: " + e.getFault().getFaultString());
        } catch (Exception e) {
            System.out.println("Exception: " + e.getMessage());
        }
    }
}

In the client code above I used the rather nonintuitive DOM Tree API to get the data elements I needed, for example:

String weatherResponse = weatherMsg.getSOAPBody().getElementsByTagName("dwmlOut")
    .item(0).getFirstChild().getNodeValue();

If you have many such calls to make, another option is to use XPath, see tutorials from Baeldung and TutorialsPoint for more information.

https://glenmazza.net/blog/date/20180505 Saturday May 05, 2018

Creating integration tests for SOAP web services

Learn various ways of creating integration tests for SOAP web service providers.

[Read More]

https://glenmazza.net/blog/date/20180310 Saturday March 10, 2018

Compressing SOAP messages during transit

In this article I'll be demonstrating two ways to compress Apache CXF SOAP requests and responses to conserve network resources--Fast Infoset (FI) and GZip compression. We'll modify the introductory DoubleIt web service tutorial to test this functionality along with Wireshark to see how the SOAP requests and responses change as a result. The code modifications necessary are quite minimal, just a few lines over one or two source files.

As a reference point, let's use Wireshark to see the SOAP request and response for a standard DoubleIt call without compression:

POST /doubleit/services/doubleit HTTP/1.1
Content-Type: text/xml; charset=UTF-8
Accept: */*
SOAPAction: ""
User-Agent: Apache-CXF/3.2.2
Cache-Control: no-cache
Pragma: no-cache
Host: localhost:8080
Connection: keep-alive
Content-Length: 224

<soap:Envelope xmlns:soap="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/">
    <soap:Body>
        <ns2:DoubleIt xmlns:ns2="http://www.example.org/schema/DoubleIt">
            <numberToDouble>10</numberToDouble>
        </ns2:DoubleIt>
    </soap:Body>
</soap:Envelope>
        
HTTP/1.1 200
Content-Type: text/xml;charset=UTF-8
Content-Length: 238
Date: Sat, 10 Mar 2018 16:09:14 GMT

<soap:Envelope xmlns:soap="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/">
    <soap:Body>
        <ns2:DoubleItResponse xmlns:ns2="http://www.example.org/schema/DoubleIt">
            <doubledNumber>20</doubledNumber>
        </ns2:DoubleItResponse>
    </soap:Body>
</soap:Envelope>

First, let's activate fast infoset, both client- and service-side. The negotiation process involves the SOAP client sending an uncompressed Accept: application/fastinfoset HTTP header in the first SOAP request. If the server is configured to support FI, it will return a compressed SOAP response with a content type of application/fastinfoset. Subsequently all SOAP requests and responses between the client and web service provider will then use FI. However, if the server is not configured to use FI the server will return an uncompressed SOAP response with the usual text/xml Content-Type. The following table shows how to activate FI:

Component How to implement Fast Infoset Compression
CXF Web Service Provider

Add the FastInfoset dependency to your project. Then attach the @FastInfoset feature to either the Service Endpoint Interface (SEI) or SEI implementation:

@WebService(targetNamespace = "http://www.example.org/contract/DoubleIt"... 
@org.apache.cxf.annotations.FastInfoset
public class DoubleItPortTypeImpl implements DoubleItPortType {
    ....  
}

Alternative configuration options: Can configure via the org.apache.cxf.feature.FastInfosetFeature either on the ServerFactoryBean or the cxf:bus. As the FastInfosetFeature just installs the two FI interceptors, those interceptors can also be added programmatically to the web service endpoint.

Note FI will be activated only if the client requests it. The feature's force=true attribute (also settable via the FIStaxOutInterceptor constructor) can be used to force FI from the service to the client without negotiation, however there's no guarantee the client will be able to process it.

CXF SOAP Client

Add the FastInfoset dependency to your project. Then add the FastInfoset interceptors to the SOAP client class:

public class WSClient {

    public static void main (String[] args) {
        DoubleItService service = new DoubleItService();
        DoubleItPortType port = service.getDoubleItPort();

        Client client = ClientProxy.getClient(port);
        client.getInInterceptors().add(new org.apache.cxf.interceptor.FIStaxInInterceptor());
        client.getOutInterceptors().add(new org.apache.cxf.interceptor.FIStaxOutInterceptor());
        ...
    }
}

Alternative: add the FastInfosetFeature to the ClientFactoryBean.

Note FI will be activated only if the service is configured to provide it. FI can be forced from the client to the service without negotiation using the methods described above for the web service provider, however there is no guarantee the service provider will be able to process it.

Now, let's check the results over the wire:

POST /doubleit/services/doubleit HTTP/1.1
Content-Type: text/xml; charset=UTF-8
Accept: application/fastinfoset, */*
SOAPAction: ""
User-Agent: Apache-CXF/3.2.2
Cache-Control: no-cache
Pragma: no-cache
Host: localhost:8080
Connection: keep-alive
Content-Length: 224

<soap:Envelope xmlns:soap="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/">
    <soap:Body>
        <ns2:DoubleIt xmlns:ns2="http://www.example.org/schema/DoubleIt">
            <numberToDouble>10</numberToDouble>
        </ns2:DoubleIt>
    </soap:Body>
</soap:Envelope>
        
HTTP/1.1 200
Content-Type: application/fastinfoset
Transfer-Encoding: chunked
Date: Sat, 10 Mar 2018 17:39:16 GMT

.....8..soap(http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/.?...Envelope?...Body8..ns2%http://www.example.org/schema/DoubleIt.?...DoubleItResponse<.doubledNumber.20....POST /doubleit/services/doubleit HTTP/1.1
Content-Type: application/fastinfoset
Accept: application/fastinfoset, */*
SOAPAction: ""
User-Agent: Apache-CXF/3.2.2
Cache-Control: no-cache
Pragma: no-cache
Host: localhost:8080
Connection: keep-alive
Content-Length: 155

.....8..soap(http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/.?...Envelope?...Body8..ns2%http://www.example.org/schema/DoubleIt.?...DoubleIt<
numberToDouble.0....HTTP/1.1 200
Content-Type: application/fastinfoset
Transfer-Encoding: chunked
Date: Sat, 10 Mar 2018 17:39:16 GMT

.....8..soap(http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/.?...Envelope?...Body8..ns2%http://www.example.org/schema/DoubleIt.?...DoubleItResponse<.doubledNumber.0....

For GZIP, follow the below table for configuration information. The negotiation process involves the SOAP client sending an Accept-Encoding: gzip HTTP header in the first SOAP request. If the server is configured to support GZIP compression, it will return a compressed SOAP response with the Content-Encoding: gzip HTTP Header. Subsequently all SOAP requests and responses between the client and web service provider will then use GZIP. If the server is not configured to use GZIP then SOAP requests and responses will be sent as normal, uncompressed.

Component How to implement GZIP Compression
CXF Web Service Provider

Attach the @org.apache.cxf.annotations.GZIP annotation to DoubleItPortTypeImpl, or either the GZIPFeature or its two corresponding interceptors as described in the previous table for the FI configuration. Note the annotation, feature and GZIPOutInterceptor all provide an optional threshold value below which SOAP messages will not be compressed, if not provided, the default is 1KB.

CXF SOAP Client

Attach the GZIPFeature or the GZIP interceptors (along with the threshold value, if desired) as described in the previous table for FI.

The results with GZIP are shown below. I set the threshold to zero, both client- and service-side, to ensure compression of all messages. (Note following Wireshark's HTTP stream will uncompress by default, causing one to think no compression is occurring. To see the compressed values as below, right-click any packet part of the SOAP calls and choose "Follow->TCPStream" instead.)

POST /doubleit/services/doubleit HTTP/1.1
Content-Type: text/xml; charset=UTF-8
Accept: */*
Accept-Encoding: gzip;q=1.0, identity; q=0.5, *;q=0
SOAPAction: ""
User-Agent: Apache-CXF/3.2.2
Cache-Control: no-cache
Pragma: no-cache
Host: localhost:8080
Connection: keep-alive
Content-Length: 224

<soap:Envelope xmlns:soap="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/">
    <soap:Body>
        <ns2:DoubleIt xmlns:ns2="http://www.example.org/schema/DoubleIt">
            <numberToDouble>10</numberToDouble>
        </ns2:DoubleIt>
    </soap:Body>
</soap:Envelope>HTTP/1.1 200
Content-Encoding: gzip
Vary: Accept-Encoding
Content-Type: text/xml;charset=UTF-8
Content-Length: 158
Date: Sat, 10 Mar 2018 18:03:20 GMT

        ..........m.... .D....X.#A.F.^<..T6..,..........d&.fW1.(.aFG.w.w.e..M?.Q...GoX.........)A.U...>.
        ...M...xC..x....M)    \.....:.k33m..:......l......s.l../&.......
        
POST /doubleit/services/doubleit HTTP/1.1
Content-Type: text/xml; charset=UTF-8
Accept: */*
Accept-Encoding: gzip;q=1.0, identity; q=0.5, *;q=0
Content-Encoding: gzip
SOAPAction: ""
User-Agent: Apache-CXF/3.2.2
Cache-Control: no-cache
Pragma: no-cache
Host: localhost:8080
Connection: keep-alive
Content-Length: 150

..........].1..0.E..z..1F!......`.!..:m..q..
.....l.\..8....)....c...4..;....*W.?...k..kf.../k"......5.>A_])E..B...f=|...Ch............u..?..7Y.......HTTP/1.1 200
Content-Encoding: gzip
Vary: Accept-Encoding
Content-Type: text/xml;charset=UTF-8
Content-Length: 157
Date: Sat, 10 Mar 2018 18:03:20 GMT

..........m.... .D....X.. .../...*.{..t.......x..d..*&..)<.Q...]`Y.}7..%.....E../h.C....tZ5...S..;y..wxNW.H..n...........l3.4..6i/..q.[.kC...b........Q.7....

https://glenmazza.net/blog/date/20180304 Sunday March 04, 2018

Replacing JAX-WS handlers with Apache CXF interceptors

Summary: This article shows how to use Apache CXF interceptors as an alternative to JAX-WS handlers for web service providers and SOAP clients.

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https://glenmazza.net/blog/date/20180225 Sunday February 25, 2018

Adding JAX-WS handlers to SOAP web services and clients

Summary: JAX-WS handlers provide a way to factor out functionality common for multiple SOAP web service providers and clients. Learn how to add JAX-WS handlers to your Apache CXF-based solutions.

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https://glenmazza.net/blog/date/20180203 Saturday February 03, 2018

Activating XML schema validation for SOAP calls in Apache CXF

See how the payloads of Apache CXF SOAP requests and responses can be XML schema-validated.

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https://glenmazza.net/blog/date/20170625 Sunday June 25, 2017

Using the Quartz Scheduler to make recurring SOAP calls

Summary: Software AG's Apache-licensed Quartz Job Scheduler can be used to run a wide range of tasks at predefined intervals. This tutorial shows how to use Quartz to schedule Apache CXF SOAP calls at recurring intervals.

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https://glenmazza.net/blog/date/20170611 Sunday June 11, 2017

Switching from SOAP 1.1 to SOAP 1.2 messages

Summary: For WSDL-first web services, explains how to upgrade your SOAP calls from the SOAP 1.1 to SOAP 1.2 standard.

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https://glenmazza.net/blog/date/20170604 Sunday June 04, 2017

Customizing and enhancing JAXB classes generated during the WSDL-to-Java process

Summary: Learn how to customize the JAXB classes generated during the wsdl-to-java process for Apache CXF.

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https://glenmazza.net/blog/date/20170528 Sunday May 28, 2017

Using SoapUI to make Salesforce Marketing Cloud API calls

Tutorial shows how to use SoapUI to make SOAP calls to the Salesforce Marketing Cloud API.

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